Moranbah, a rural and mining town, is 150 km south-west of Mackay. Construction of the town by Utah Development Company began in 1970, the name being taken from the Moranbah Parish and the pre-existing Moranbah pastoral station. The origin of the name was probably Aboriginal, but the meaning is unrecorded.

Utah Development entered into arrangements to mine extensive coal deposits at Goonyella and Peak Downs, approximately equidistant from its planned town. From the beginning Utah planned a town with extensive amenities, including a civic centre, under the government of the local Belyando Shire. The site was scrub land, and the first houses were set in unlovely cleared spaces noted for dust and heat. A school, an ambulance centre and a branch of the Country Women's Association were opened in 1971. The population was approaching 3000 when a hospital was opened in 1974. A state high school was opened in 1976 and the Catholic St Joseph The Worker church was opened in 1979 after several years of shared use of the civic centre for worship.

In its early years the average age of Moranbah's inhabitants was eleven. By 1982, children had become young people and some adults experienced premature death. Moranbah chose to have its own cemetery, as the town was now a home to many people, particularly after a drawn-out strike over a federal government proposal to tax company-owned housing. The landscape had become more an oasis than cleared scrub. A second State primary school, Moranbah East, opened in 1991.

Moranbah's population increase reflects the frantic upswing in coal mining. At the 2011 census coal-mining accounted for 39.4% of Moranbah's working population.

There is an extensive shopping centre, a civic centre, Catholic, Anglican and Uniting churches, a wide range of sporting venues and facilities, including bowls and golf, and Miners' and Workers' social clubs.

Since 2001 the Goonyella and Peak Downs coal mines have been operated by BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BHP acquired Utah Development in 1984). Anglo Coal has mines at Moranbah North (1998, 2004). A pipeline for coal-seam gas to Townsville opened in 2004.

Moranbah's census populations have been:

Census DatePopulation
19711050
19764053
19866883
20016133
20067133
20118965

At the 2011 census the median age of residents was 29 years, compared with 37 for Australia.

Further Reading: 

Alan Murray, Nothing but scrub, Moranbah, Moranbah Silver Jubilee Committee, Belyando Shire Council, 1996